Specific terms

Zweiwellige Wellpappe / double wall board

Two fluted sheets and three smooth paper sheets are made to use double-face corrugated board.

How is corrugated board made?

Zuschnitt / blank

Die-cut box which is flat and not processed (e.g. glued) prior to delivery.

Zentrallager / central warehouse

A warehouse in which central functions of the distribution system – such as product stocking – are assumed for other warehouses.

Wrap-Around / wrap-around blank

Box blank which is wrapped around the packaged product during the automatic packing process and closed.

WPA / corrugator

Corrugated board machine for the production of corrugated board from paper using forming and joining processes.

Wellpappe / corrugated board

Acc. to DIN 55468 T1, corrugated board is defined as follows: “Corrugated board is a packing material made from one or more layers of a fluted paper glued between multiple layers of another paper”.

Wellkiste / folding box

See folding box.

Wellenstoff / waste-based fluting

Like bogus paper, though a raw material of superior quality, slight gluing on both sides, high grammages, produced with two layers.

Waschbretteffekt / washboarding

Corrugation of liner of corrugated board along the flute in the same frequency to the flute.

Warengruppe / product group

(Category) A product group is a distinguishable, independently controllable unit of products or services.

Vollpappe / solid board

Flat material largely consisting of fibres of vegetable origin.

VMI / vendor managed inventory

Vendor Managed Inventory. The provision of customer-specific inventory and distribution solutions.

Viskosität / viscosity

The viscosity of an ink is defined as the runout time in seconds of 100 cm³ through a 4 mm opening in the bottom of the measuring cup. Through the evaporation of the water during the printing process, the ink becomes “thicker”, i.e. has higher viscosity. A thicker ink has more pigments per ink cell. This makes the printed colour darker! Also, each ink application system (roll coater, chamber doctor blade, squeegee) has its own optimum ink viscosity.

VCI-Papiere / VCI papers

Paper coated or impregnated with VCI (Volatile Corrosion Inhibitor).

VCI / volatile corrosion inhibitor

Volatile Corrosion Inhibitor. Corrosion protection for corrosion-sensitive parts which are subject to high climate fluctuations during storage or shipment.

Value-Chain-Analysis / value chain analysis

A method for the identification and quantitative evaluation of savings potential along the logistics chain.

Unit Loads / unit loads (ISO 3676)

(ISO 3676) Loads consisting of units or packages which are joined together into one unit by means of one or more aids for handling, transport, stacking and storage. The term is also used to describe a single large loading unit used for the same purpose.

Überfüllung / congestion

Process for preventing white gaps; “extends” the foreground object.

TUL-Prozesse / impact loads

Loads occurring during transport, transfer or storage.

Trayverpackungen / tray packages

Trays are packages primarily intended for presenting goods. They are always one-part and are always die-cut.

Trapping / trapping

Trapping refers to the ink adhesion characteristics in wet-on-wet printing when multiple colours are printing over each other.

Tiefdruck / rotogravure printing

As the name implies, the printing elements are recessed.

Testliner / test liner

Liner made of 100% recycled fibres with defined strength values. Usually processed as multi-layer, delivered both glued and unglued. In comparison to kraftliner, it is on the whole more moisture-sensitive and has a lower bursting strength.

Tampondruck / pad printing

Pad printing is an indirect gravure printing technique. The ink is taken squeegeed gravure plate using a silicone rubber pad and applied to the print carrier.

System / system

(ISO 3676) A unit consisting of interdependent components.

Supply Chain / supply chain

(Logistics chain) All activities required to satisfy the demand for a product or service starting from the demand for raw materials or data and ending with the delivery of the finished product to the end consumer.

Stulpverpackungen / telescope-type boxes

A telescope-type box always consists of at least two parts, the upper part / lid and the lower part / bottom.

Stapelstrauchwiderstand / box crush resistance

See BCT.

Stanzverpackungen / die cut packaging

Packaging which is die cut from a corrugated paper sheet using a punching die.

Splicer / splicer

Machine component of a corrugated board plant (paper dispenser) which joins the final piece of the old roll with the first piece of the subsequent roll when changing a paper roll.

Spektralfotometer / spectrophotometer

Designation for a measuring device for determining colour values such as hue, brightness and saturation.

SKU / stockkeeping Unit

(Stockkeeping Unit) In Europe, a stockkeeping unit is a uniquely identifiable product available at a certain time for sales.

Siebdruck / screen printing

In screen printing, the print image is formed by open points in a fine-meshed screen. The ink is pressed by means of a squeegee through the screen onto the substrate lying under the screen.

Sicherheitsbestand / safety stock

The stock intended to balance between the predicted and actual consumption as well as between the expected and actual delivery time. When calculating the safety stock, influence factors such as degree of service, expected demand fluctuations and throughput time are considered.

Shore-Härte / shore hardness

Measurement for the hardness of a material. For example, index for constructing a printing block.

Sekundärverpackung / secondary packaging

Outer packaging or second packaging, i.e. packaging containing a certain number of sales units which are delivered together at the point of sale to the end buyer or consumer or are only used to fill the sales shelves; these packages may be removed from the product without influencing its properties. (Directive 94/62/EC).

Schrenz / bogus paper

Cost-effective waste paper raw material, single-layer, strongly moisture-sensitive due to the lack of bonding, used in the production of lowest-quality corrugated board or liners made from mixed, unsorted waste paper. Used in light types of corrugated board as the inner liner, with very light qualities also as outer liner.

Schnittzeichnung / cross – sectional view

Drawing (tool drawing) used as a model for the production of the punching tool and the print image design. Cross-sectional drawings are also used as a component of the order documentation for quality assurance.

Rotationsstanze / rotary die cutter

Processing machine for corrugated board operating according to the rotary die-cutting principle. The round punching die is stretched on a drum.

Rillen / creasing

Creasing is the preparation of movable/hinge-like bending points with the goal of specifying the geometric location of the bend, creating a hinge-like bendable cross-section, reducing the bending resistance at the bending point. A creaser is the tool used to achieve this.

RFID-Transponder / RFID transponder

RFID transponders are radio transmitters which receive signals from a reading device and then sends them back. Such transponders contain at least one unique product code, but often also additional information. Transponders have a wide range of designs, e.g. as labels or plastic cards.

RFID / Radio Frequency Identification Data

‘Radio Frequency Identification’ refers to technology for the contactless identification of objects. By means of radio waves, the data is sent to a receiver from an RFID transponder and then evaluated.

RESY – Recycling System / RESY – Recycling System

Standardised identification of the recyclability of used packing materials and packages.

Replenishment System / replenishment system

Process for supplying a customer with goods and the type of delivery to the customer.

RDC / RDC (regional distribution centre)

Regional distribution centre of the distributor within the logistics chain where the goods of the producer arrive and the loads are separately stored and if applicable recombined before they are sent to stores.

Rasterwalze / anilox roller

Roller with ink cells for transferring ink. The task of an anilox roller is to coat the printing parts of the printing block regularly with the required amount of ink. The condition of the anilox roller is of essential importance for the exact dosing of ink.

Raster / halftone screen

In reproduction and printing technology, halftone screens refer to regularly arranged points or lines which serve to resolve a halftone image into printable elements. Flexography on corrugated board generally uses screens with 15 to 48 L/cm.


National standardisation system. RAL German Institute for Quality Assurance and Labelling.

PS / Polystyrol / polystyrene

Foamed polystyrene is better known as styrofoam. Styrofoam is the protected trade name of a invention of BASF patented in 1952. The white foam is hygienic, low-cost, extremely light and can be moulded into (almost) any desired shape. Furthermore, the material is a very good shock absorber, an outstanding heat insulator and non-sensitive to moisture. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) consist of only roughly 2% polystyrene (PS); the remaining 98% being air.

Proof (Prüfdruck) / proof

Quality control procedure with respect to colour reproduction, printing registration, text and image configuration or also as a model for the production print. In a proof, expectable result should be reproduced as exactly as possible on the print run machine.

Primärverpackung / primary package

Initial packaging for packaged goods, e.g. bag, tube, cup.

PP / Polypropylen / polypropylene

Packing material used to make expanded polypropylene as a padding material. Closed-cell foam with high restoring force.

POS / Point of Sale

Point of Sale in retail trade.

POP / Point of Purchase

(Point of Purchase) purchase location, more currently known as POS (Meaning: The consumer is placed at the centre of consideration, i.e. for whom the act is one of purchasing, not of selling)

Polsterweg / spring deflection

Compression distance of padding. With PE foam, this is approx. 70% of the padding thickness.

Polster / padding

Means for creating a braking distance in case of impact forces.

Pick-and-Pack / pick-and-pack

Picking of products in the centre of distribution.

Pick by store / pick by store

Store-based picking of products in the centre of distribution.

Perforation / perforation

Interrupted cut line; it aids in the preparation of bending points and as an opening aid. (tear-off perforation)

PE / Polyethylen / polyethylene

Polyethylene (symbol: PE) is a partially crystalline, thermoplastic synthetic material manufactured by polymerising ethane. PE is categorised under the polyolefins and possesses good recovery properties.

Passer / colour register

In multi-colour printing, colour registration refers to the exact overlap of the individual printing plates of a theme. Register marks serve to control the registration.

Pappe / paperboard

Flat material largely consisting of fibres of vegetable origin which forms on a sieve (sieves) by dehydrating a fibre suspension. Paperboard has a grammage of > 220 g/m².

Palettendirekttauschverfahren / pallet exchange programme

Industrial practice for using pallets

Paletten / pallets

Load carriers for the combination, sorting, stacking, storage, handling and transport of goods as a loading unit.

Packstoff / packaging material

Material from which packages and packaging aids are produced. (e.g.: corrugated board, wood, plastic, glass, metal, etc.)

Packmittel / Package

Product made from packaging material serving the purpose of enclosing or holding together the packaged goods so that they are capable for transport, storage and sale. (e.g.: corrugated board packaging, box, bottle etc.)

Packgut / packaged goods

Product to be packed.

PA / Polyamid / polyamide

Packing material usually used in the production of flat films.

Offsetdrucker / offset printer

Qualified job in printing technology for offset printing including pre-press.

Offsetdruck / offset printing

In offset printing, the parts to be printed and those not to be printed lie on one plane. To ensure that the fat colour is not applied on the entire printing plate by the applicator rolls, a hydraulic roller distributes a uniformly thin film of water on the plate. This water film only adheres to the parts not to be printed and is repelled by the parts to be printed. This water film on the plate repels the fat colour so that the colour only adheres to the parts to be printed. In offset printing, a rubber blanket is always applied between the plate and the paper. Offset is therefore an indirect printing process.

Noppenschaum / eggshell foam

Napped polyurethane foam. Suitable for light, sensitive packaged goods. (e.g.: circuit boards)

Naß-in-Naß-Druck / wet-on-wet printing

Print in a multi-colour printing press. The print of the second/further colour on the previously printed and not yet dry colour.

Multischockmaterial / multi-shock material

Cushioning material with restoring force. (e.g.: polyethylene 99%)

Monoschockmaterial / monoshock material

Cushioning material without restoring force. (e.g.: maize chips)

Moiré / moiré effect

Undesirable, disturbing pattern arising in superimposed grid images .

Modulverpackung / modular package

A system of packing measurements (acc. to ISO 3637) derived from the module dimensions, e.g. packages from which the ISO basic module (600 * 400 mm) can be made on the basis of the euro-pallet.

Mikrowelle / E-flute

See E-flute.

Migration / migration

Movement of the packaged goods within the package. (e.g.: in case of loose fill)

Mengentoleranzen / volume tolerances

Tolerances in the order quantity which are influenced to a great extent by production-related factors. Over- and underdeliveries of an order quantity fluctuate within defined tolerance limits unless otherwise agreed.

Mehrwert (added value) / added value

The value arising as the result of a process (e.g. production, packing, storage, transport) with respect to a product beyond its pure material value.

Mehrstoff-Verpackung / multicomponent package

Package made from multiple packing materials. (e.g.: paperboard with plastic)

MDC / MDC (materials distribution center)

(Manufacturer Distribution Centre) Centre of distribution of the manufacturer where the produced goods from manufacturing arrive to be separated into batches, consolidated and/or stored before being transferred to the next point of the logistics chain.

Luftdurchlässigkeit / air permeability value

Volume of air which flows through the paper surface. An important index for the running performance of packages on packing machines which operate with a vacuum.

Loose-Fill / loose filling

Loose filling such as styrofoam flakes, chips, maize flakes, etc.

Liner / liner

Liner for the production of corrugated board.

Lasierende Farbe / transparent ink

Translucent colour layer as opposed to an opaque colour.

Krempelverpackung / Krempeltray

When straightening up the package, flaps remaining in place engage with the slit intended for this purpose. This creates a sort of barrier that prevents the fold-in from folding back.

Kraftliner / kraftliner

Liner predominately manufactured from kraft pulp with certain strength properties.

Konstruktiv-Verpackung / structural packing

Made-to-measure package usually designed for series production.

Konfektionieren / finishing

Joining together different material combinations into a complete unit.

Komplementärfarben / complementary colors

Surface colours which together form achromatic colour or black are complementary. With respect to hue, the respective complementary colour is located on the opposing side of the colour circle.

Kommissionieren / order picking / picking

The purpose of order picking is to assort partial quantities from a total quantity of goods (assortment) on the basis of requirements (orders). (cf. VDI Guideline 3590)

Klischee / print die / printing plate

Flexography printing plate.

Kaschieren / lamination

Joining prefabricated area-measured material using a lamination agent or by virtue of the thermoplastic behaviour or the processing material. The goal: improving the machinability and processability of the material, combining basic materials to exploit the respective advantages of the individual material and compensating for disadvantages.

Kaschieranlage / laminator

Processing machine used to manufacture laminated materials.

Karton / paperboard

Flat material largely consisting of fibres of vegetable origin which forms on a sieve (sieves) by dehydrating a fibre suspension. Is also referred to as solid fibre board and has a grammage of 150-600 g/m².

Kantenstauchwiderstand / edge crush resistance

See ECT.

Kammerrakel / chambered blade

Element of the inking unit of a flexographic printing machine. Enables the production of high-quality prints.

JIT / just-in-time

(Just-in-time) The delivery of required material to the required location at the right time for the intended use or consumption.

ISO / ISO International Organization for Standardization

International standardisation.

Innenmaße / inside dimensions

Inner dimensions of a package.

Inneneinrichtung / interior decoration

Interior decoration is intended to fill hollow spaces, the fix the packaged goods in place and to act as a cushion against impact load.

Innendecke / inner liner

Paper from the inside of corrugated board.

Inliner / flexo-folder-gluer

Processing machines used for printing, punching and gluing in one machine (inliner). Frequent area of application is the manufacture of folding boxes.

Halbzellstoff / semi-chemical pulp

Corrugated paper made of chemically derived semi-chemical pulp; the recovered fibre content is usually 35%; better moisture stability than corrugating medium, more expensive than corrugating medium, high stiffness.

Graubalance / grey balance

A requirement for colour reproduction in multi-colour screen printing is the compliance with the grey balance in the partial colour extracts or accounting for the laws of halftone dithering. For this, the degree of screen coverage in the partial colours (yellow, cyan and magenta) must be so measured that a neutral grey is achieved when the individual colours are printed over each other over the entire tonal value range.

Grammatur / grammage / basis weight

Grammage [g/m²], unit of measurement for paper, cardboard and paperboard that determines the mass per unit area (m²).

Gluen / lap joint / shear joint

Flap adhesion for corrugated board boxes.

Gegenriller / matrix scores

See also creasing; tool for hollow creasing with which the creaser presses the material into a u-shaped section.

Gefahrgut / hazardous material

Goods (material) which represents special dangers for people, animals and the environment. Packaging for hazardous goods must be approved for the design and are subject to special quality requirements in production.

Flexodruck / flexography

The printing process called flexography uses relief printing plates with raised images and is the most common method used for packaging. It can be used for printing on almost any type of materials with a smooth surface, including corrugated cardboard, paper, carton, metallic films, aluminum foil, metal plate, labels and laminations. Both on printing track as well as on printing sheet.

Flexo-Preprint / Flexo-pre-print

Preprinting the printing materials in a flexographic process with watery printing ink on printing presses (central cylinder press, stationary printing press) with an endless print plate. Further processing e.g. into corrugated board, paper bags etc. is executed in an additional work step.

Flachstauchwiderstand / flat crush resistance

See FCT.

Flächendruck / surface pressure

Full-surface printing of a package

FKM / folder gluer

Folding box gluing machine – Processing machine which manufactures flat boxes (collapsible boxes, folding bottom boxes) from box cutouts by means of gluing in an additional manufacturing process.

Feinstwelle / E-flute

See E-flute.

FEFCO / FEFCO (European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacturers)

(Fédération Européenne des Fabricants de Carton Ondulé) European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacturers. International code for shipping packages. Joining together different material combinations into a complete unit.

Federweg / spring deflection

See spring deflection.

FCT / flat crush test

Flat crush test [kPa] (flat crush resistance). An FCT for corrugated board determines the max. pressure withstood by the cardboard until the flute is crushed. Testing method for single-face corrugated board.

Faserguß / fiber casting / pulp molding

100% recovered paper, dissolved and formed by compression and drying.

Farbvorlage / colour proof

Colour proofs refer to the model that is to be realised in the print – it is the idea of the customer, designer, advertising expert about the colour to be achieved in the final product. (Nuance)

Farbtonkreis / circle of hues

Display format for primary colours and mixed colours.

Farbraum / colour space

Displayable colours in a colour system.

Farbgrenzmuster / color swatch

Colour swatches are required to coordinate the colour shade to be delivered prior to shipping with all concerned with the product, the customer, the print shop and if applicable the advertising agency and to inspect the product in the incomings goods inspection. The colour swatches must be made with the paper and ink used for the order. In order to account for inevitable colour variations, colour samples are specified for the brightest and darkest possible shades of a colour.

Farbfächer / fan guides

VDW Pantone (PMS) – HKS – RAL are colour shade standarisations on a variety of print media. VDW 15 colour shades on kraft white + kraftliner brown Pantone is from the USA. New shades are added each year. “C” = Coated paper is printed on 2 print media. “U” = Uncoated paper. The “U” colour shades approximate KWT paper.

Faltsteige / folding ladder

See folding packaging.

Faltschachtel / folding box

(FEFCO 0201) Generally consists of one piece, with the bottom and the cover each formed by four closing flaps.

EN / European Standard

European standardisation system.

Einwellige Wellpappe / single wall corrugated

One fluted sheet between two linerboards.

Einstoff-Verpackung / single material packaging

Packaging made from one packing material. Requirement for recyclability.

Einseitige Wellpappe / single face corrugated

One fluted sheet between two linerboards.

Efficient Replenishment / efficient Replenishment (ER)

(ER) Cooperation of all involved in the supply chain with the goal of attaining an efficient flow of goods from the manufacturer to the consumer. This means providing right product at the right time, at the right place, in the right quantity and with the highest possible efficiency.

EDI / electronic Data Interchange

(Electronic data interchange) EDI is the transfer of structured data by means of defined electronic message standards from one computer application to another with a minimum of manual interventions. By avoiding writing work, letter correspondence and other administrative costs necessitated by the documentation of the flow of information, EDI reduces costs, disturbances and faults. The practical need for ECRs results from the specifications of EANCOM messages.

ECT / edge crush test

Edge crush test [N/m] (edge crush resistance). Test procedure for determining the edge crush resistance of corrugated board.

EAN-Code / bar code

European Article Number – machine-readable bar code (EAN 13, EAN 128) used to simplify logistical processes, automation and increasing security. The Europe-based international organisation “European Article Numbering Association” is responsible for the system. Together with the American Uniform Code Council for numbering and communication systems, the body regulates EAN, UPC, EANCOM and UCS.

E-Welle / E-flute

Extra fine flute or microflute of corrugate board. Flute height 1.0 to 1.8 mm. For non-sensitive products, hardly any spring effect, good printability, therefore usually used for sales packaging.

Durchstoßprüfung / puncture test

The puncturing energy [J] is the total energy used when puncturing the sample with a penetrator with a defined shape and dimension. It is used for the penetration – tear propagation – bending up of the sample.

Durchlaufzeit / lead time

(Lead time) The time period arising between placing an order and the delivery of the goods. It is typically expressed in days or hours.

Druckzuwachs-Tonwertzunahme-Punktzuwachs / dot gain

This refers to the increase in terms of surface area in the number of screen points in the print in comparison to the original point size in the film or printing block > colour correction curve.

Druckwerk / Printing unit

Assembly of a printing machine containing the working bodies for ink transfer.

Druckstand /

correct positioning of the print image with respect to the contour of the packaging

Drucklack / printing varnish

Colourless varnish applied in the printing machine. The printing varnish improves such surface properties as abrasion resistance and brilliance.

Druckkennlinie / colour correction curve

Connection of the tonal values of the pre-stage and the tonal values of the print result.

Doppelwelle / double wall board

Double-face corrugated board manufactured from combinations of identical or different flute shapes. Examples include EB flute or BC flute.

Distributionskanal / distribution channel

The path of a product from the supplier to the end user determined by the attributes of the trade partner (e.g. wholesaler, retailer).

Direktdruck / direct printing

As opposed to a preprint, in the direct printing of corrugated board the outer sheet of the corrugated board is printed directly.

DIN / German Industrial Standard / DIN

National standardisation for Germany. Subordinate to EN and ISO.

Digitaldruck / digital printing

Non-contact printing procedure which has no printing plate in the conventional sense. This includes, among others, ink-jet printing, laser printing and thermotransfer printing.

Dichte/Farbintensität:: / colour intensity

The density is measured using a densitometer. Density measuring values are dimensionless, e.g. 1.5. It is very important for multicoloured image prints + colour swatches. For example, if a colour is printed to intensely in an image reproduction, a colour fault results immediately in the image. The density has nothing to do with the colour location in colour theory. Density values are also important in reproduction for films.

Densitometer / densitometer

Colour density measuring instrument.

Densität / density

lat., optical density.

Deckenbahn / Deckenpapier / linerboard

Smooth paper sheet which is glued with a fluted corrugated sheet to form corrugated board. Liners include kraftliner, testliner and bogus paper.

Cromalin / cromalin®

Cromalin is a photomechanical testing procedure. A transparent Cromalin film is exposed through the negative film. The Cromalin film becomes adhesive due to the action of light at the open points in the negative. The adhesive points are dyed with Cromalin dye powder. After all the dyed films are glued over each other, a proof is created which is calibrated relatively well to the later print.

Copacking / copacking / contract packing

Copacking is the performance of packing services by an external service provider (e.g. contract packers). These packing services may include, for example, the packing of goods in a display or a packaging, repacking goods or product enclosure for promotional purposes.

C-Welle / C-flute

Medium flute of corrugated board. Height 3.1 to 3.9 mm. Good all-purpose quality, most common flute type.

Bodenklappe / bottom flap, soil flap

Bottom-forming element / elements of a box.

Blitzer / thin white line

Unprinted points which may be generated between directly adjoining colour areas if register inaccuracies occur.

Beschichtungen / coatings

Surface finishing with the goal of improving the machinability and processability of the material, combining basic materials to exploit the respective advantages of the individual material and compensating for disadvantages. In the coating process, particles of a formless material are applied on an area-measured material so that a closed layer forms.

Berstdruck / Berstfestigkeit / bursting strength

The bursting strength [kPa] is the resistance which a sample held by circular clamps opposes to a pressure rising uniformly on one side until bursting.

BCT / box compression test

Box compression test (top to bottom compression strength) [kN]. The maximum load of a folding box under compression is the BCT value of the folding box. This is determined by using a upsetting press.

Bar-Code / bar code

See EAN code.

B-Welle / B-flute

Fine flute of corrugated board. Flute height 2.2 to 3.0 mm. Good printability.


AUTO-ID (automatic identification) refers to all methods for automatic data acquisition and processing. Auto-ID technologies include voice recognition, magnetic cards, barcode and RFID.

Auflösung / resolution

Umbrella term for the number of pixels scanned or reproduced within a defined area.

Anilindruck / aniline printing

Old designation for flexography based on the first aniline colours used.

Antirutschlack / anti-slip paint

Coating for paper / corrugated board with the intention of increasing the static and sliding friction of the packaging.

Andruck / press proof

Sample print on a print system in a small run which renders the result of the reproduction process visible. The printing technology of the press proof system should correspond to the production print.

Abquetschwalze / squeegee roller

A rubber roller which is pressed against the screen roller in a flexographic printing machine, squeezing out the excess ink from the screen roller. Advantage: Simple, unproblematic handling and quick change of colour, prints rich colours. Disadvantage: Not usable for screen >18L/cm because screen dots run together; change of tonal value.

A-Welle / A-flute

Coarse flute of corrugated board. Flute height 4.0 to 4.9 mm. Very good spring effect.

error: Hinweis: Inhalt ist geschützt !!